Glossary of Terms
measurement error of an analytical process.
Related to the
diagnosis and treatment of patients.
Highly structured systems that are very
sensitive to the initial conditions. Their behavior is often chaotic as it is
characterized by variations that are very hard to be predicted.
A failure that
can initiate hazard.
measure of the classification accuracy of a diagnostic test. It is
characterized by the sensitivity and the specificity of the test.
The species identification of a live
organism based on a standardized short sequense of its DNA.
A measure of the disorder of a system.
The termination of the ability of an item to perform a
search algorithms that do not require knowledge of the objective function to be
optimized and can search through large spaces quickly. They were derived from
processes of molecular biology and the evolution of life. Their operators,
crossover, mutation, and reproduction, are isomorphic with the synonymous
biological processes. Instead of DNA or RNA strands, genetic algorithms usually
process strings of symbols of finite length; these symbols encode the
parameters to be optimized.
The potential source of harm.
A parameter, associated with the result of a measurement, that
characterizes the range of the values that could reasonably be attributed to
Negative Predictive Value:
The fraction of the population with a negative diagnostic test that are
The graph representation of a system. The nodes or vertices of the graph represent the components of the system and the edges represent their relations.
The selection of a
better or best alternative among a number of possible states or affairs.
Usually the maximization or minimization of a function that depends on the
objective of the system, the objective function.
Positive Predictive Value:
The fraction of the population with a positive diagnostic test that are
The proportion of a population who have a particular disease or attribute in a given time period.
Probability Density Function:
A measure of the probability of a random variable.
The statistical methods that are used for
understanding, monitoring, and improving a process or product.
Operating Characteristic (ROC) Plots (Curves):
Plots of the fraction of the
diseased population with a positive diagnostic test versus the fraction of the
nondiseased population with a positive diagnostic test.
The probability that an item will perform
a required function, under stated conditions, for a stated period of time.
The risk remaining after the control measures have been taken.
Combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that
harm due to a hazard.
The practice of analyzing,
evaluating, controlling and monitoring risk.
The fraction of
the diseased population with a positive diagnostic test.
The numerical evaluation of the model of a system, to estimate
the true characteristics of the system.
The fraction of
the nondiseased population with a negative diagnostic test.
mathematical transformation of symbolic expressions, using computer
An expression of imperfect or deficient information. When quantifiable it can be represented with probability.